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Romans in France: Nimes

Revisit the ancient past with a tour of Romans in Nimes — one of the critical Roman towns in “Gaul” during the days of Augustus.

Romans in Nimes

Nimes is a “must” for Roman history lovers


France has so many unique places to visit it’s hard to decide where to start. If you’re a Roman history buff, you must visit Nimes. It’s a city where you can see, touch, and experience life in France during the days of the Roman Empire. Unlike other places with a rich Roman history that are now in ruins, many artifacts from Augustus Caesar’s time are still in active use.

In Nimes you can walk on the same streets, into the same buildings … literally sit in the same seats as the Romans who once occupied this part of Gaul.

Visiting Nimes is more than seeing “remnants” of Roman civilization. There are intact, still-standing Roman structures. A Roman temple, a Roman arena, and a Roman tower. These are places that are enjoyed now by real, 21st-century people.

Maison Carrée
Maison Carrée


Roman Arena in Nimes
Roman Amphitheater , the Arènes de Nîmes


The Magne Tower
The Tour Magne

The Roman History of Nimes

The Nimes area was an established community as early as 400 B.C. It was founded as a Roman colony (Colonia Nemausus) by Tiberius Claudius Nero in 45 or 44 B.C. for veterans who had served Julius Caesar under his command in Gaul and the invasion of Egypt. The name “Nemausus” was derived from the name of a Celtic god — the protector of the nearby spring that provided water for the early settlement.

Coin of Nemausus circa 40 BC
Coin of Nemausus circa
40 BC
Maison Carrée in Nimes
Maison Carrée in Nimes

As part of the Roman Empire, Nemausus benefitted from great wealth — especially during the reign of Augustus (27BC-14 B.C.) — and from an era of relative Peace, Pax Romana (Roman Peace). The city reflected its opulence with grand architecture typical of a prosperous Roman colony. Among the most famous, the Maison Carrée was originally a Corinthian temple that dominated the city’s forum.

It is said that Thomas Jefferson became so enamored with the Maison Carrée during a visit to France as foreign minister to the United States that he had a clay replica made. He later used the model to design the capitol building of Virginia, his home state.

Virginia State Capitol Building in Richmond, VA
Virginia State Capitol Building in Richmond, Va

The Arènes de Nimes or the “Amphitheater”

In Roman times, the Arènes de Nimes could hold up to 24,000 spectators spread over 34 rows of terraces. Divided into four separate areas, each section could be accessed through hundreds of galleries, stairwells, and passages.

Aréna in Nimes
Aréna in Nimes

The amphitheater was designed for crowd control and ultimate viewing pleasure. There were no bottlenecks when spectators flooded in, and all had unrestricted visibility of the entire arena. Several galleries and entrances were located beneath the arena so animals and gladiators could access the arena during the Roman games.

The “games” included animal hunts with lions, tigers, elephants, and gladiator matches. Executions were also held, where those in town convicted to death were thrown to the animals as punishment.

Inside the Aréna Nimes
Inside the Aréna Nimes

After the times of the Roman Empire, Nimes fell into the hands of the Visigoths, then the Muslims. The Visigoths turned the arena into a fortress or “castrum arena” where the townspeople could gather in the event of an attack. When Pepin the Short, father of Charlemagne, captured the city in 752, Nimes’s splendor was in ruins. It was not until 1786 that work began to restore the arena to its original grandeur.

The Tour Magne (Magne Tower) remains a prominent structure in Nimes, erected during the reign of Augustus in 1 B.C. It is said to have been built atop an earlier Celtic/Gallic tower from 15BC- 14BC. The Tour Magne, the tallest structure for miles around, was used as part of the fortification surrounding the city. What remains of the tower can be seen from throughout the city.

Along with the Roman buildings still in use today in Nimes, there are ruins of the early civilization that visitors can wander through or view.

The Porte d’Auguste, part of the fortifications of Nemausus, Nîmes
The Porte d’Auguste, part of the fortifications of Nemausus, Nîmes


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The so-called Temple of Diana, part of an Augusteum, Nîmes © Carole Raddato
The so-called Temple of Diana, built during the Augustine era
(Photo by Carole Raddato)

Your Walking Tour of Nimes

The downtown area of the Roman city of Nimes is still alive. The most historic Roman monuments are within walking distance. You might want to hop on a local bus to reach Les Jardin de la Fontaine. Visit the Temple de Diane while you are there. If you climb up to the highest levels of the terraced stairway, you will reach the park-like area of Mont Cavalier through more gardens.

Further up the hill is the Tour Magne. It’s a hike to reach the tower, but it’s worth it if you want a view of the city from all directions. Take plenty of water and, perhaps, a snack to stop and enjoy the view. 


Step-by-step guide

  • Nimes can be reached by train, bus, and car. The train station (GARE) is in the center of the historic area. Regional buses stop behind the train station as well. A pedestrian promenade leads straight from the station to the amphitheater.

Park at any one of the downtown parking lots. Just follow the blue P signs. Some of the parking is outside, and some are in a garage. When I visit Nimes, I park at the Marché (city market “Halle de Nimes”) outlined in purple on the map because it is close to the Maison Carrée.

  • Start your tour at the Maison Carrée. Thé Maison Carrée is probably the best preserved Roman temple in the world. Like all the Roman temples, the building sits on a podium, rising above the public square.
  • Walk to the Arèna (amphitheater). There are self-guided amphitheater tours with headphones and an audio presentation describing the days of gladiators. Stop along the way to the amphitheater or at many cafes and restaurants for a more leisurely visit.
  • Walk past the Porte d’Auguste to view a part of the fortification that protected the ancient city. It’s not a short walk from the amphitheater but on the way to your next stop.
  • Les Jardin de la Fontaine is a “modern” part of Nimes with a rich Roman background. It was built in the 18th century atop the ruins of Roman baths (thermal). You can stroll for hours in the garden, enjoying the fountains, canals, and seasonal plantings.

Tour Magne is your last stop. The tower is open for tourists (check the schedule) to wander through inside. A narrow, spiral stairway leads to a viewing area where you can see the city of Nimes from all angles.

Here’s another reason why you must see Nimes

 Nimes blends the “new” with the “ancient.” A modern world among ancient Roman buildings. The Amphitheatre, for example, is the entertainment center used for rock concerts and other popular musical events. 

Times amphitheater is home for huge music events

Roman history reenactments, with all the pomp and ceremony, are staged in the Nimes amphitheater each year.


Amphitheater in Nimes
Amphitheater in Nimes

Then there are the Ferias or bullfights in the amphitheater. The events are still prevalent in the south of France and draw crowds for the weekend events. 

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Regardless of the time of year you visit Nimes, there’s a party going on. 

Maison Carrée
Maison Carrée



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